Theory - Bloom's Taxonomy
work of Benjamin Bloom and his collaborators (Bloom, et al., 1956)
had significant impact on educational research and practice.
work identified three "domains" of educational activities:
the Cognitive Domain, Affective Domain and the Psychomotor Domain.
His work on the Cognitive Domain resulted in his highly influential
Taxonomy. It attempts to divide cognitive
objectives into subdivisions ranging from simple to complex. The
taxonomy categorizes the level of abstraction of questions that
commonly occur in educational settings. For those developing assessment
tools it is particularly helpful as it categorizes test questions.
and recall of information including dates, events, places,
major ideas and mastery of subject mater
list, define, tell, describe, identify, show, label, collect,
examine, tabulate, quote, name, who, when, where, etc.
information, grasping it meaning, translating it into next
facts, compare, contrast
group, infer causes and predict consequences
summarize, describe, interpret, contrast, predict, associate,
distinguish, estimate, differentiate, discuss, extend
information, methods, concepts, theories in new situations
problems using required skills or knowledge
apply, demonstrate, calculate, complete, illustrate, show,
solve, examine, modify, relate, change, classify, experiment,
patterns, organization or parts, identify components and
recognize hidden meanings
analyze, separate, order, explain, connect, classify, arrange,
divide, compare, select, explain, infer
old ideas to create new ones
from given facts and relate knowledge from several areas
combine, integrate, modify, rearrange, substitute, plan,
create, design, invent, what if?, compose, formulate, prepare,
and discriminate between ideas, assess the value of theories,
choices based on reasoned argument
value of evidence
assess, decide, rank, grade, test, measure, recommend, convince,
select, judge, explain, discriminate, support, conclude,
from: Bloom, B.S. (Ed.) (1956) Taxonomy of educational objectives:
The classification of educational goals: Handbook I, cognitive
domain. New York ; Toronto: Longmans, Green.
another way of looking at Bloom Click Here.
dissonance theory has important application for designers of all
courses. It points out the tendency for individuals to seek
consistency among their cognitions (i.e., beliefs, opinions).
When there is an inconsistency between attitudes or behaviors
(dissonance), something must change to eliminate the dissonance.
Imagine you have a student who firmly believes one set of "facts."
In order for the student to expand their knowledge they must learn
and accept that there are errors in their understanding.
working to eliminate dissonance need to: (1) reduce the importance
of the dissonant beliefs, (2) add more consonant beliefs that
outweigh the dissonant beliefs, or (3) change the dissonant beliefs
so that they are no longer inconsistent. This is easiest
when students trust and respect the instructor, and when the instructor
can provide evidence which the student finds relevant.
frameworks for adult learning or andragogy (as opposed to pedagogy)
suggest that adults learn differently than children. Adult
learning theory emphasizes the impact of experiential learning
and lifespan psychology.
a result it argues that:
learning programs should capitalize on the experience of participants.
learning programs should adapt to the aging limitations of the
should be challenged to move to increasingly advanced stages
of personal development.
should have as much choice as possible in the availability and
organization of learning programs.
more see: http://tip.psychology.org/cross.html
suggests that faculty who are sensitive to their students learning
styles reach students more quickly and more easily than those
who force all students to adapt to the traditional read/lecture
only approach. Keep in mind our discussion of memory.
Use of learning styles is key to enhanced memory. Remember
students' memory retrieval strategies are linked to the way their
brain functions (brain-based learning). We should encourage
students to explore all learning styles and enhance all of their
learning skills, while mindful that students will learn more
quickly and with less emotional resistance if we employ the learning
style most natural for them. Community College students,
more than perhaps any other group of learners, frequently suffer
from low self-esteem. The more we enhance learner success,
the more likely we are to retain students and inspire them to
continue their education.
miss this opportunity: take a learning styles survey at:
interpretations of learning styles can be found at:
more about Learning Styles
interpretation of Learning Styles and Learning Cycles comes from
Kolb, (click on the image to enlarge):
learning theory emphasizes the importance of observing and modeling
the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others. Most
human behavior is learned by observation. The effectiveness
of learning varies according to attention:
more see: http://tip.psychology.org/bandura.html
the most famous recent analysis of how we learn comes from
Gardner former director of an educational research group,
Zero, at the Harvard
Graduate School of Education. In his book, Frames
of Mind: Theories of Multiple Intelligences (1983, 1993),
he argues that we must expand the definition of intelligence
beyond that of the traditionally defined verbal and
logical thinking assessed by IQ tests. He defines
intelligence as ``a biopsychological potential to process
information that can be activated in a cultural setting
to solve problems or create products that are of value in
a culture.'' Over the last 20 years he has developed a theory
and model of multiple intelligences supported by research
from the fields of cognitive and developmental psychology,
animal physiology and neuroanatomy.
Intelligence is the capacity for understanding and responding
to new situations. It includes the ability to learn from one’s
is consideration of multiple intelligences important?
concept of multiple intelligences is important because it provides
insight into why some material is learned quickly, while other
information remains elusive. The theory argues that each of us
has every intelligence in varying strengths. It also suggests
that we can use our strengths to excel and compensate for our
weaknesses. Knowing what comes most easily, and why, can provide
guidance for learning more difficult material.
Even those who question
the theory can usually agree that students’ optimism about learning
can be increased when instructors encourage students to excel
by building on their strengths. Optimistic students stay in class
and put forth the effort needed to learn. They are able to use
one area of intelligence to support work in another. For example,
some students succeed at math by viewing it as a language rather
than using symbolic skills. Other students may reflect on, process
ideas and "write the paper" in their head while exercising,
as they need the kinesthetic movement to simulate their thinking.
Intelligences: what are they?
has identified eight distinct intelligences and is considering
a ninth. The best teachers (particularly in introductory
courses) employ classroom techniques which allow students to employ
their stronger forms of intelligence and to develop those that
are weaker. The intelligences include:
2. Logical/Mathematical (L/M)
3. Visual/Spatial (V/S)
4. Musical (M)
5. Bodily/Kinesthetic (B /K)
6. Social/Interpersonal (S/I), sometimes referred to as
7. Intrapersonal (IA)
8. Naturalist (N)
9. Existential/Spiritual (E/S)
more about the types of Multiple Intelligences
we use the theory of multiple intelligences?
based assignments using teams of students with different intelligences
can be an enriching experience for all. Students learn to notice
and appreciate the diversity of ways people can be 'smart'.
As you read through the rest of this lesson keep multiple intelligence
in mind and we believe that you will find numerous additional
see the link between Multiple Intelligences and Learning Styles