of the ability to think in words and to use language to express
and appreciate complex meanings. Authors and journalists are
among those that exhibit high degrees of linguistic intelligence.
Our culture often defines those with VL as the most intelligent
because they often are adept at using language fluently, at
manipulating the structure or syntax of language, and/or have
a deep appreciation of its meaning. They can most effectively
communicate in words.
to encourage the development or expression of V/L include:
L/M core components
include sensitivity to and the ability to discern logical or
numerical patterns, and the ability to handle long chains of
reasoning. It is fundamental to scientific thinking: establishing
a hypothesis, testing, and then modifying it in light of the
results. Scientists, accountants, engineers and computer
programmers apply L/M regularly.
to encourage the development or expression of L/M include:
- Home finance planning
- Computer programming
- Deciphering codes
- Economic data analysis
- Graphic organization
- Mathematical formulas
- Numerical sequencing
- Pattern searches
Includes the ability to perceive the visual-spatial world accurately
and the capacity to perform transformations on one's initial perceptions.
It includes the ability to mold and shape images seen in the mind's
eye. V/S provides the capacity to think in two and three-dimensional
ways as do sailors, pilots, sculptors, painters, construction workers
to encourage the development or expression of V/S include:
- Active Imagination
- Model Building
- Set design
4. Musical (M):
M includes the ability
hear musical tones in one's head, and to create in the mind's
ear complex musical sounds including a sensitivity to pitch, melody,
rhythm and tone. Research has shown that listening to music can
enhance both the creative process and learning as complex melodies
support complex thinking. Information is more effectively
remembered when it is associated with music, a fact relied on
by advertisers. Those with musical intelligence often rely on
their auditory skills in learning new information.
to encourage the development or expression of M include:
of all types
used for recall of information (rap lyrics for example)
terminology or concepts
The theory of multiple
intelligences supports the ancient view of the mind and body as
one and regards purposeful physical activity as an intelligence
in it's own right. It includes the ability to move one's body
with expertise and the capacity to handle objects skillfully.
Physical competence includes strength, endurance, flexibility,
balance, dexterity, expressiveness, coordination and good reflexes
and posture. Surgeons, craftspeople, artists, musicians
and athletes all use B/K intelligence. Our culture often
sees B/K intelligence as less important than V/L intelligence,
but in non-industrialized cultures it is often considered the
most important form of intelligence.
to encourage the development or expression of B/K include:
(S/I) sometimes referred to as Interpersonal (IE):
People with interpersonal
intelligence are socially adept and people smart. They have the
ability to make fine distinctions in the intentions, motivations,
moods, feelings, and thoughts of other people and to relate effectively
with others. They often have the capacity to discover key
individuals within a group who can help them meet their goals.
Leaders usually also have high S/I skills. Current discussions
about emotional intelligence reflect the recognition that lifetime
success in business and personal relationships is often closely
related to S/I. Often, teachers, political leaders, advertising
strategists and sales people have high S/I skills.
to encourage the development or expression of S/I include:
to classmates or the professor
People with intrapersonal
intelligence have a high level of self understanding and access
to the "real" self, that inner core that remains the
same even as a person grows and develops. People with
IA intelligence effectively use their knowledge in planning
their lives. The clergy, psychologists and philosophers
are among those who exhibit high IA skills.
to encourage the development or expression of IA include:
Discussion of the
emotional impact of a field of study
focused on response to learning
Those with Naturalist
Intelligence show skills in observing, understanding and organizing
patterns in the natural environment. They are sensitive
to seasonal and even daily environmental changes. Biologist,
environmentalists and traditional healers often have highly developed
Classroom (and out
of classroom) activities to encourage the development or expression
of N include:
E intelligence is
expressed in "capturing and pondering the fundamental questions
of existence." Philosophical thinkers use this form
to encourage the development or expression of E include:
Discussion or reading
about the philosophical underpinning of a field of study
Discussion of ethical
behavior in a discipline (This could be anything from what
auto mechanics should charge to how doctors and nurses should
respond to the dying.)
discuss the impact of one's personal philosophy on their relationship
to the field of study
In order to
qualify as a distinct intelligence, Howard Gardner established four
criteria that must be satisfied:
ideas and experiences in the various intelligences can be expressed
using text, numbers, images, musical notes, typical gestures, expressions
and archetypal images.
autonomous brain system: each intelligence is based on the physiology
of brain structure. Gardener worked as a neuropsychologist
with victims of brain injury who had impairments in each of the
seven areas. Each intelligence appears to have its own separate
cognitive process in terms of memory, perception, and problem solving.
Indeed the technology of brain scans has confirmed different areas
of the brain are involved in each intelligence.
valued accomplishments: great writing, art, music, complex equations
describing the physical world, accomplished athletes, inspiring
leaders represent the best of each intelligence.
developmental profile. Musical genius, such as Mozart's ability
to compose symphonies by the age of nine may be the first intelligence
to emerge and may last a lifetime, as evidenced by Pablo Casals
who performed into his nineties. The parallel play of toddlers comes
before social play develops. Logical mathematical abstract
thinking and the ability to be introspective typically emerge later
in childhood. Great athletes may be at their best in the late teens
through early 30s.
may be conceptualized in three broad categories.
capacities are controlled and shaped by the objects that individuals
encounter and interact with in their environments. These
include visual/spatial, logical/mathematical, bodily/kinesthetic
and naturalist intelligence.
intelligences are not shaped by the physical world but are dependent
upon language and musical systems (auditory systems). These
include verbal-linguistic and musical.
intelligences including social/interpersonal, intrapersonal and existential/spiritual
intelligences reflect our social or interactive abilities.